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Researchers find ChatGPT biased against CVs with credentials that imply disability

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Researchers find ChatGPT biased against CVs with credentials that
 imply disability

San Francisco, June 22 (IANS) Researchers have found that OpenAI’s artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot ChatGPT consistently ranked curriculum vitae (CVs) or resumes with disability-related honours and credentials — such as the ‘Tom Wilson Disability Leadership Award’ — lower than the same resumes without those honours and credentials, a new study has revealed.

In the study, when the US-based University of Washington (UW) researchers sought clarification about the rankings, the system showed biased perceptions of disabled people.

For instance, it claimed a resume with an autism leadership award had ‘less emphasis on leadership roles’ — implying the stereotype that autistic people are not good leaders.

However, when researchers customised the tool with written instructions directing it not to be ableist, the tool reduced this bias for all but one of the disabilities tested.

“Five of the six implied disabilities — deafness, blindness, cerebral palsy, autism and the general term ‘disability’ — improved, but only three ranked higher than resumes that didn’t mention disability,” the researchers noted.

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The researchers utilised the publicly available CV of one of the study’s authors, which spanned about 10 pages. They then created six modified CVs, each suggesting a different disability by adding four disability-related credentials: a scholarship, an award, a seat on a diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) panel, and membership in a student organisation.

Subsequently, the researchers used the GPT-4 model of ChatGPT to compare these modified CVs with the original version for an actual “student researcher” position at a major US-based software company.

They conducted each comparison 10 times; out of the 60 trials, the system ranked the enhanced CVs, which were identical except for the implied disability, first only one-quarter of the time.

“Some of GPT’s descriptions would colour a person’s entire resume based on their disability and claimed that involvement with DEI or disability is potentially taking away from other parts of the resume,” said Kate Glazko, a doctoral student in the UW’s Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering.

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“People need to be aware of the system’s biases when using AI for these real-world tasks. Otherwise, a recruiter using ChatGPT can’t make these corrections, or be aware that, even with instructions, bias can persist,” she added.

–IANS

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Automatic train protection system Kavach deployed on 1,465 km of tracks: Minister

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Automatic train protection system Kavach deployed on 1,465 km of tracks: Minister

Automatic train protection system Kavach deployed on 1,465 km of tracks: Minister

New Delhi, July 25 (IANS) The indigenously developed Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system Kavach has so far been deployed on 1,465 route km and 144 locomotives on South Central Railway, Minister of Railways Ashwini Vaishnaw told the Parliament on Wednesday.

A sum of Rs 1,216.77 crore has been utilised on the Kavach system so far and the allocation of funds during the year 2024-25 stands at Rs 1,112.57 crore, he told the Lok Sabha in a written reply.

Kavach is a high-technology anti-collision system. It aids the loco pilot in running the train within specified speed limits by automatic application of brakes in case the loco pilot fails to do so and also helps the train run safely during inclement weather. In case of an impending collision, it automatically brings the train to a halt.

Kavach has been certified for the highest level of Safety Integrity Level – SIL4 by the Independent Safety Assessor and reduces the probability of train collisions in block sections and on running lines at stations.

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The minister also stated that presently, the progress of main items related to Kavach on the Delhi-Mumbai and the Delhi-Howrah corridors (approximately 3,000 route km) is as under: optical fibre cable has been laid on 4,275 km, 364 telecom rowers installed, 285 units of Kavach equipment provided at stations, 319 units Kavach equipment provided in locos, and Kavach trackside equipment installed at 1,384 route km.

Further, the Detailed Project Report (DPR) and Detailed Estimate on another 6, 000 route km has been approved by Railways. To increase capacity and scale up implementation, trials of more OEMs are at different stages, the minister added.

–IANS

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India, UK launch joint Technology Security Initiative spanning 7 key areas

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India, UK launch joint Technology Security Initiative spanning 7 key areas

India, UK launch joint Technology Security Initiative spanning 7 key areas

New Delhi, July 24 (IANS) The Indian and UK Prime Ministers, recognising the increasing role of technology in national security and economic development, have launched a new ‘Technology Security Initiative’ (TSI), spanning seven vital sectors, to elevate the strategic partnership between the two countries, an official statement said on Wednesday.

The TSI, to be coordinated by the National Security Advisors (NSAs) of both countries, will build upon the ambitious bilateral cooperation agenda set out in the India-UK Roadmap 2030, and will bring into sharper focus collaboration in critical and emerging technologies (CET) across priority sectors, as per the TSI document, shared by the Ministry of External Affairs.

The domains, for the launch of new bilateral initiatives and accelerating cooperation between relevant stakeholders within government, technology and research centres, and industry to expand and deepen the technology security partnership were listed as, but not limited, to telecoms, critical minerals, semiconductors, Artificial Intelligence, quantum, biotechnology and healthtech, and advanced materials.

The NSAs will set the priority areas and identify interdependencies for cooperation on CETs that will help build meaningful technology value chain partnerships and the Deputy NSAs will review the progress on a half-yearly basis. A bilateral mechanism will also be set up for promotion of trade in CETs, including the resolution of relevant licensing or regulatory issues.

Lauding the existing collaborations, the two countries said that they seek to build on this strong foundation to collectively shape a fourth industrial revolution that improves the citizens’ health, wellbeing and prosperity, in ways which support democracy and peace, the document said.

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In the telecoms domain, both countries will collaborate on joint research on future telecoms, focussed on Open RAN systems, testbed linkups, telecoms security, spectrum innovation, software and systems architecture, and a partnership to boost security, resilience and performance of telecom networks, among others.

Collaboration is also envisaged between UK and Indian researchers in global design and development of next-generation telecommunication technologies, and promoting 6G technology engagement, and collaboration on telecoms diversification, telecoms security, telecoms standards, telecom equipment and use of spectrum.

Both countries will also encourage pilot projects by Indian and UK companies in each other’s 4G/5G/6G stack and enterprise connectivity, connected devices, edge computing and adoption of green and sustainable telecommunications.

In critical minerals, both countries will expand collaboration, work together to improve supply chain resilience, and explore possible research and development and technology partnerships along the complete critical minerals value chain (including exploration, processing, and manufacturing).

A UK-India “critical minerals” community of academics, innovators, and industry will be established, and partnerships leveraged to develop economically feasible and environmentally sustainable extraction technologies for identified critical minerals.

Collaboration between leading Indian and UK research institutes will be deepened as well between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and Geological Survey of India (GSI), along with IREL (India) Ltd, including on Rare Earth Elements exploration.

On semiconductors, the two countries will seek to leverage their individual strengths and incentives, and explore mutually beneficial R&D focused on strategic issues such as supply chain resilience collaboration, skills exchanges and hardware security.

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The partnership will seek opportunities for academic and industrial R&D collaboration, including in chip design and IP, compound semiconductors, etc with a focus on strategically important applications such as powering net zero, advanced telecommunications and cybersecurity. It will also comprise sharing best practices and knowledge exchange programmes on workforce development, and encouraging further integration of supply chains for manufacturing and designing semiconductor chips and wafers, among other objectives.

The UK and India will work towards safe, responsible, human-centric and trustworthy AI, which can promote global good and strengthen interoperability between their AI governance frameworks, as well as cooperate in fora like the G20, Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI), and the United Nations (UN).

A mechanism for collaboration and policy exchange on AI applications, and to equip AI researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and industry professionals with the necessary knowledge and skills needed to detect, mitigate and challenge bias in AI algorithms are also among the objectives.

Existing efforts by British and Indian institutions will be utilised towards the creation of a joint Centre for Responsible AI, while a group of experts will be commissioned to deliver a report on specific areas for targeted collaboration to take forward further development of AI and its applications across sectors.

Both countries said they recognise that quantum is an important area for discussion, and will respond to the rapidly changing technological landscape by establishing a high-level dialogue to gain an in-depth understanding of national strategies, and possible future research.

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Both will also have joint hackathons in quantum algorithms and solutions for automotive, life sciences, chemicals, and greenhouse gas domains, entrepreneurship training for translating quantum capabilities into business applications and academic/industry exchanges on skills development.

It was also agreed to strengthen biotechnology cooperation, launch a high-level partnership on engineering biology and share knowledge to help facilitate research advances. Areas of focus include genomics, genomic prediction and precision medicine, cell and gene therapy, biotherapeutics (including bio-manufacturing), smart bio-sensors and bio-electronics, biomaterials and bio-fabrication in line with respective ethical and legal frameworks.

Co-development and evaluation of affordable healthcare measures, including low-cost diagnostics for early detection of important diseases, and novel preventive and therapeutic interventions will also be a priority.

The UK and India will establish a high-level dialogue on advanced materials, to identify specific R&D collaboration on materials/composites and collaboration on research, responsible innovation and standards, as they seek to elevate the lower TRL (Technology Readiness Level) technologies to higher TRL and CRL (Commercial Readiness Level).

They will also collaborate on specific types of materials, such as novel alloys and powders, advanced materials for extreme environments, alongside sustainable materials and manufacturing for transforming foundation industries, such as glass, paper, cements, chemicals, and metals.

–IANS

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PLI booster: 32 firms invest Rs 8,282 crore for large-scale electronics manufacturing

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PLI booster: 32 firms invest Rs 8,282 crore for large-scale
 electronics manufacturing

PLI booster: 32 firms invest Rs 8,282 crore for large-scale
 electronics manufacturing

New Delhi, July 24 (IANS) In a fillip to local manufacturing, 32 companies have invested Rs 8,282 crore under the production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme for large-scale electronics manufacturing till June 30, the Parliament was informed on Wednesday.

The IT Ministry said that 27 companies have cumulatively invested Rs 464.66 crore under the PLI scheme for IT hardware and PLI scheme 2.0 for IT hardware.

In a written reply to a question in Lok Sabha, Minister of State for Electronics and IT, Jitin Prasada, said as on March 31, the cumulative investment made by the companies under the PLI scheme for large-scale electronics manufacturing was Rs 8,069 crore against the committed investment of Rs 9,653 crore up to March 2024.

“Whereas the cumulative investment made by the companies under PLI Scheme for IT Hardware 2.0 is Rs 249.46 crore against the committed investment of Rs 56 crore up to March 2024,” he said.

Under the PLI scheme for large-scale electronics manufacturing, a total of 32 companies were approved with a committed investment of Rs 11,324 crore and a projected production target of Rs 10,70,000 crore. Under the PLI scheme for IT hardware, a total of 14 companies were approved with a committed investment of Rs 2,517 crore and a committed production target of Rs 1,60,751 crore.

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According to the IT Ministry data, under the PLI scheme 2.0 for IT hardware, a total of 27 companies were approved with a committed investment of Rs 2,955 crore and a committed production target of Rs 3,51,647 crore. Thirteen out of 14 applicants from PLI Scheme for IT Hardware have been migrated to PLI Scheme 2.0 for IT Hardware, the ministry said.

The government has not changed the production or investment criteria under the PLI scheme for large-scale electronics manufacturing, PLI Scheme for IT hardware and PLI 2.0 for IT hardware after the selection of the companies under the scheme. However, to provide relief to companies approved under the PLI scheme affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, the tenure of the PLI Scheme for Large Scale Electronics Manufacturing has been extended by one year — from 2024-25 to 2025-26. Out of 32 companies approved under the PLI scheme for large-scale electronics manufacturing, seven are Greenfield companies and 25 are Brownfield companies.

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Out of the cumulative investment of Rs 8,282 crore, the cumulative investment made by Greenfield companies is Rs 3,136 crore and by Brownfield companies is Rs 5,146 crore.

Out of the cumulative investment of Rs 464.66 crore made in the PLI scheme for IT hardware and PLI scheme 2.0 for IT hardware, the investment made by Brownfield companies is Rs 386.09 crore and Greenfield companies is 78.57 crore.

–IANS

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Over 18.56 lakh sign up for IT Ministry's skilling initiative in emerging tech

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Over 18.56 lakh sign up for IT Ministry's skilling initiative in emerging tech

Over 18.56 lakh sign up for IT Ministry's skilling initiative in emerging tech

New Delhi, July 24 (IANS) The government on Wednesday informed that more than 18.56 lakh candidates have signed-up on the ‘FutureSkills PRIME Portal’ and out of which, over 3.37 lakh have completed their course.

‘FutureSkills PRIME’ is a programme by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) for re-skilling and upskilling of IT manpower for employability in 10 emerging technologies, including Artificial Intelligence (AI)

In a reply to a question in the Lok Sabha, Minister of State for Electronics and IT, Jitin Prasada, said that the government considers the next decade as ‘India Techade’.

Under the scheme of Centers of Excellence for Artificial Intelligence implemented by MeitY in partnership with Nasscom, startups are supported for developing AI-based tools and applications that are of use for manufacturing companies.

Several such solutions have been deployed by companies in the manufacturing sector.

The ‘Stanford AI Index 2024’ highlights that India tops global AI skill penetration rates and AI talent concentration.

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India’s AI skill penetration is rated at 2.8, surpassing the US (2.2) and Germany (1.9).

Additionally, India’s AI talent concentration has seen significant growth, with a 263 per cent increase from 2016 onwards.

“AI may result in automating some routine jobs but will also result in job creation in various data science, data curation, etc. This will require reskilling and upskilling,” said the minister.

In addition, the National e-Governance Division (NeGD), MeitY in collaboration with its partners, has implemented ‘YUVAi: Youth for Unnati and Vikas with AI’ programme for school students with the objective of enabling them with AI tech and social skills.

–IANS

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582 mn people worldwide will be chronically undernourished in 2030: UN report

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582 mn people worldwide will be chronically undernourished in 2030: UN report

582 mn people worldwide will be chronically undernourished in 2030: UN report

New Delhi, July 24 (IANS) About one in 11 people or 733 million people globally faced hunger in 2023, according to the latest State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) report published on Wednesday by the UN agencies.

The report showed that this will lead to about 582 million people being chronically undernourished in 2030, a sign that the world is falling significantly short of achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2, Zero Hunger.

The annual report also shows that the world has been set back 15 years, with levels of undernourishment comparable to those in 2008-2009.

Despite some progress in specific areas such as stunting and exclusive breastfeeding, an alarming number of people continue to face food insecurity and malnutrition as global hunger levels have plateaued for three consecutive years, with between 713 and 757 million people undernourished in 2023 — approximately 152 million more than in 2019 when considering the mid-range (733 million).

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Further, the report showed that the percentage of the population facing hunger continues to rise in Africa (20.4 per cent).

While it remains stable in Asia (8.1 per cent) the region still represents a significant challenge as it is home to more than half of those facing hunger worldwide.

Notably, the report showed progress in Latin America (6.2 per cent).

“We are off track on all indicators. That’s clear. If we project the numbers of today, we will have up to 582 million people chronically undernourished or hungry by 2030. This is half a billion more than the target, which is ‘Zero Hunger’,” said Maximo Torero, Chief Economist, at the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).

“We need to accelerate the process and change if we want to get as close as possible to our target, which was very ambitious from the beginning. We only have six years left. Now, if I observe all the different regions and I see what has happened in South America, I see that this is possible,” he added.

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Meanwhile, the report also highlighted that access to adequate food remains elusive for billions.

In 2023, around 2.33 billion people globally faced moderate or severe food insecurity, a number that has not changed significantly since the sharp upturn in 2020, amid the Covid-19 pandemic.

Among those, over 864 million people experienced severe food insecurity, going without food for an entire day or more at times, the report said.

The report also underscored the complex challenges of malnutrition in all its forms – low breastfeeding rates, low birth-weight, wasting and anaemia.

There is “an urgent need for targeted interventions as the world is not on track to reach any of the seven global nutrition targets by 2030”, the UN said.

–IANS

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